Interview Questions for Cyber Security


Cybersecurity is the process of defending programs, networks, and systems against online threats that could jeopardize the availability, confidentiality, and integrity of data. Numerous techniques, including malware, phishing, ransomware, denial-of-service, and advanced persistent threats, can be used in these cyberattacks. Usually, their goals are to extort money from users, compromise regular corporate operations, or gain access to, change, or destroy important information.

The top 60 frequently asked questions about cybersecurity interviews are covered in this article, along with answers that address everything from fundamental cybersecurity principles to more complex ones like threat intelligence, incident response, penetration testing, malware analysis, and red teaming. This post gives you all the assurance you need to conquer cyber security architecture, regardless of expertise level. 

Interview Questions for Cyber Security

Win the next interview in cybersecurity.

Questions for a Cybersecurity Interview for New Hires

1. Which cyberattacks are most prevalent?

Basic cyberattacks include the following:

Phishing is the deceptive act of sending unsolicited emails by pretending to be from reliable sources.Social Engineering Attacks: This kind of attack can occur in anyplace where human cooperation is needed. They can also take many different forms.Ransomware: Ransomware is a type of document encryption software that encrypts data inside a targeted context using unique cryptographic computations.Cryptocurrency Hijacking: Cybercriminals have become more prevalent along with digital currencies and mining. They have discovered a sinister benefit in mining cryptocurrencies, which calls for intricate computations in order to produce digital currencies like Litecoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin, and Monero.Botnet Attacks: Botnet attacks frequently target big businesses and organizations that collect a lot of data. 

Please see the following article for more information: Types of Cyber Attacks.

2. What components make up cyber security?

Cybersecurity consists of the following elements:

Application Security: Adding security features to applications during the upgrade phase to protect against cyberattacks is application security, which is the most significant fundamental component of cybersecurity.

Information security is a part of cyber security that deals with how data is shielded from unwanted access, use, disclosure, interruption, alteration, and deletion.

Network security is the defense against threats and unwanted access that a network is given. Precautions must be taken by the network administrator to shield the system from potential security risks. Another component of IT security is network security.

the process of guarding against and stopping illegal access to computer networks.

Planning for Disaster Recovery: A disaster recovery or business continuity plan is a document that outlines how to rapidly and effectively resume work following a calamity. The business level should be the starting point for a disaster recovery process, which should identify the apps that are typically essential to the association’s operations.

Operational security, also known as procedural security, is the practice of enabling managers to view behavior from a hacker’s point of view in order to safeguard sensitive data from a range of risks.

Final User Instruction: The most crucial aspect of computer security is end-user training. Because they can occur at any time, end users are quickly emerging as the top security risk to any organization. at any moment. Human error is one of the main mistakes that causes information corruption. Employees at associations need to be trained in cyber security.

3. What is DNS?

In order for browsers to load online sites, domain names must be translated into IP addresses via the Domain Name System (DNS). To put it simply, each device on the Internet has an IP address that other devices can use to identify it. In this way, DNS defines the network’s services.

Please read the article Domain Name System (DNS) in Application Layer for more information.

4. Describe a firewall.

A firewall is a hardware- or software-based network security device that keeps an eye on all incoming and outgoing data and decides whether to accept, reject, or discard it in accordance with predetermined security criteria.

To learn more about this subject, please read the Introduction of Firewall page.

5. What is a virtual private network?

The term VPN represents Virtual Private Network. A technique known as a virtual private network (VPN) establishes a safe, encrypted connection over an unreliable network such as the Internet. A virtual private network is a way to use a public network, like the Internet, to expand a private network. All that is implied by the name is that it is a virtual “private network.” A local area network may include a user. in a distant place. Use a tunneling protocol to establish a secure connection.

To read more about virtual private networks (VPNs), please visit this page.

6. What are the various malware sources?

The following lists the various malware sources:

Worms: A worm is essentially a dangerous virus type that spreads quickly across computers through file sharing and email. Worms can operate without host software or coding.

Spyware is a type of dangerous spyware that operates in the background of your computer, collects all of your private information, and sends the information to attackers who are located remotely.

Ransomware: Ransomware is a type of malware that obtains access to private user data without authorization and demands payment from the user in order to remove or restore it. 

Virus: A virus is a kind of harmful software that is attached to a program or file. Viruses typically propagate through other programs, and they only start to function when the host file is executed. The machine can only be harmed by the virus while the host file is running.

Trojan: Malicious, non-replicating malware, Trojans frequently cause a decrease in the effectiveness and performance of computers. Trojans possess the capacity to alter, remove, and disclose private user data.

Another kind of malware is called adware, which monitors the use of different kinds of files and programs on your computer and makes recommendations for relevant advertisements based on your past usage.

For additional information on this subject, please see the article: Various Sources of Malware.

7. How is email operated?

An email is routed to a basic email transfer protocol when it is sent using an email software. The recipient’s email address in this protocol is associated with either the sender’s domain name (Gmail, Outlook, etc.) or a different domain name. The email will then be kept on the server and sent by him later via the POP or IMAP protocols. Afterwards, the SMTP protocol talks with the DNS (Domain Name Server) for each of the recipient’s distinct addresses if they have a different domain name address. Subsequently, the SMTP of the sender and the recipient exchange messages.The email is sent to the recipient’s SMTP in this manner. Outgoing emails will be queued at the recipient’s SMTP before being received by the recipient if certain network traffic issues prohibit communication between the sender’s and the recipient’s SMTP accounts. Additionally, a message will be returned to the sender as undelivered if it is left in the queue for an excessive amount of time owing to unfavorable circumstances.  

For further information on this subject, please see the article: Working of Email.

8. What distinguishes active cyberattacks from passive ones?

Active Cyberattack: An active cyberattack is a kind of attack where the attacker tries to alter the message’s content. The availability and integrity are at risk from active attacks. Active assaults have the ability to alter system resources and corrupt the system continuously. The victim is informed of the attack, which is crucial if there is an ongoing onslaught.

Cyberattack that is not aggressive: An attack that is not aggressive involves the attacker viewing or replicating the content of the message. Confidentiality is under risk from passive attacks. Given that it’s a passive assault, there The system has not been harmed. Above all, the victim is unaware of the attack while it is carried out passively.

To learn more about it, please see the article: Difference between Active Attack and Passive Attack.

9. What is an attack using social engineering?

The practice of persuading others to act in ways that might or might not be optimal for the “target” is known as social engineering. This could entail getting access, getting information, or getting a goal to carry out a specific task. It is capable of tricking and controlling humans. Dates of birthdays and anniversaries can be found out with a short internet search or phone call accompanied by a survey. This data is sufficient to build a list of potential password attacks.

For further information, please see the article on social engineering.

10. What do white hat and black hat hackers mean?

White Hat Hacker: A white hat hacker is a certified or certified hacker who performs penetration tests and finds cybersecurity vulnerabilities on behalf of governments and corporations. Additionally, it ensures defense against malevolent cybercrime.

Hackers using black hats: They are known as crackers a lot. Important data can be destroyed by black hat hackers who have unauthorized access to your system. Typical hacking tactics that were previously learned are used in the attack strategy. Because of their malevolent actions, they are easily recognized as criminals.

For further information, please see the article: Types of Hackers.

11. What does decryption and encryption mean?

The process of converting a regular communication (plaintext) into a meaningless message (ciphertext) is known as encryption. The process of translating a meaningless message (ciphertext) back to its original form (plaintext) is known as decryption. The primary distinction between covert writing and covert writing is that the former encrypts the message in a format that is unintelligible without decryption. Contrarily, covert writing involves deciphering the encrypted data to recover the original message.

For further information, please see the article Difference between Encryption and Decryption.

12. What distinguishes cleartext from plaintext?

The plaintext cannot be regarded as encrypted because it is not encrypted at all. A text that has not been encrypted or was not meant to be encrypted is referred to as clear text. Therefore, to view the plaintext, you do not need to decrypt. in its most basic configuration.

For further information, please see the article on encryption and decryption.

13. What is a cipher block?

Block Cipher: This method takes one block of plaintext at a time and transforms it into ciphertext. Make use of 64-bit or 64-bit or higher. Block ciphers have a low level of complexity. The ECB (Electronic Code Book) and CBC (Cipher Block Chaining) algorithm modes are employed in block ciphers.

For further information, please see the article: Difference between Stream Cipher and Block Cipher.

14. What is the triangle of the CIA?

The CIA Triad is one of the most significant models created to educate information security policy inside an organization when it comes to network security.

CIA is an acronym for:

Keep Information Private

Availability of integrity

For further information, please see the article CIA Triad in Cryptography.

15. How do you shake hands three ways?

Three-way handshakes are used by TCP to create trustworthy connections. With synchronization (SYN) and acknowledgment (ACK) on both ends, the connection is full-duplex. Three phases are involved in exchanging these four flags: SYN, SYN to ACK, and ACK.

For further information, please see the TCP 3-Way Handshake article.

16. How can one stop identity theft?

How to stop identity theft:

Don’t divulge her PIN to anyone over the phone or in person, and use a secure password.

For email, use two-factor authentication. Use a single password to secure all of your devices.

Software from the Internet should not be installed. Never share private information on social media.

Verify the legitimacy of the password before entering it into a payment gateway.

Limit the private information you manage. Make it a habit to frequently change your password and PIN.

Never divulge personal details over the phone.

For further information, please see the article Cybercrime – Identity Theft.

17. Which typical hashing functions are there?

A specific numerical key or alphabetic key can be transformed into a compact, useful integer value using the hash function. Hash tables employ the mapped integer value as an index. A hash function, in its most basic form, converts any string or valid number into a tiny integer that can be utilized as an index into a hash database. The following lists the many hash function types:

Dividend Approach.

Mid Square Approach.

Method of Folding.

Method of Multiplication.

To learn more about hash functions, please refer to the article on hash functions.

18. In your words, what does two-factor authentication entail?

Using any two separate techniques from a range of authentication methods is known as two-factor authentication. In order to improve security and guarantee that users can access secure systems, two-factor authentication is utilized. Because of the fundamental security requirements of mobile computing, two-factor authentication was initially introduced for laptops. Unauthorized users find it more difficult to access sensitive data and systems via mobile devices when two-factor authentication is implemented.

For further information on this subject, please see the article on two-factor authentication.

19. What is the acronym for XSS? How might it be avoided?

Web applications include a vulnerability called cross-site scripting (XSS) that lets outside parties run scripts in the user’s browser on the web application’s behalf. One of the most common security flaws on the Internet nowadays is cross-site scripting. Using her XSS vulnerability against users might result in a number of issues, such as malware infection, account termination, privilege escalation, and account compromise. A combination of these countermeasures is needed to effectively prevent XSS vulnerabilities:Upon arrival, filter the entry. As user input is received, as precisely as feasible filter expected or valid input. On the output, encode the data. Encode the output of an HTTP response that contains user-controllable data to prevent interpretation. as dynamic material.It might be required to use a combination of HTML, URL, JavaScript, and CSS encoding, depending on the output context. Make use of appropriate response headers.Take advantage of the Content-Type and X-Content-Type-Options headers to force the browser to read the response as intended, preventing XSS in HTTP responses that shouldn’t contain HTML or JavaScript. Policy for Content Security. A Content Security Policy (CSP) can be employed as a final line of defense to lessen the impact of any lingering XSS vulnerabilities.

For further information on this subject, please see the article on Cross-Site Scripting (XSS).

20. Regarding Shoulder Surfing, what do you mean?

An attacker who can physically view a device’s screen or keyboard and enter passwords to gather personal information is said to be conducting a shoulder surfing attack. utilized to obtain malware. Similar incidents involving inquisitive individuals may result in a privacy invasion

To read more about this topic, please see the article Shoulder Surfing.

21. What is the difference between hashing and encryption?

Hashing Encryption
This is the process of transforming information into short, fixed values ​​called keys that are used to represent the original information. This is the process of securely encoding data so that only authorized users who know the key or password can retrieve the original data.
The purpose of hashing is to index and retrieve items from the database. The process is very fast. The purpose of encryption is to transform data and keep it secret from others.
There is no way to convert the hash code or key back to the original information. Only mapping is possible, the hash code is checked if the hash code is the same, and the information is checked if the information is the same, otherwise, it is not checked. Original information is not available If you know the cryptographic key and algorithm used for encryption, you can easily retrieve the original information.
It generally tries to generate a new key for each piece of information passed to the hash function, but in rare cases, it can generate the same key, commonly known as a collision. A new key is always generated for each piece of information.
Hashed information is generally small and fixed in length. It does not increase even if the information length of the information increases. The length of encrypted information is not fixed. It increases as the information length increases.

To read more about encryption and hashing, please see the article.

22. Make a distinction between information assurance and information security.

Information assurance is the process of safeguarding and controlling risks related to private data as it moves through the stages of processing, storing, and transmitting data. The primary goals of information assurance are to safeguard a system’s data’s confidentiality, non-repudiation, availability, integrity, and validity. Both digital and physical technology are covered by this.

On the other side, information security is the process of lowering information risk in order to secure information. Usually, the goal is to lessen the likelihood of illicit or unauthorized use of the data. Additionally, do not reveal, find, change, review, or record any confidential information. This involves taking action to stop these kinds of things from happening. Information security is primarily concerned with protecting data availability, confidentiality, and integrity while offering balanced defense against cyberattacks and hacking.

For additional information on this subject, please see the article Information Security vs. Information Assurance.

23. Write a difference between HTTPS and SSL.

It is called Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure. It is called Secured Socket Layer
This is a more secure version of the HTTP protocol with more encryption capabilities. It is the one and only cryptographic protocol in computer networks.
HTTPS is created by combining the HTTP protocol and SSL. SSL can be used for encryption.
HTTPS is primarily used by websites for logging into banking details and personal accounts. SSL cannot be used alone for a particular website. Used for encryption in conjunction with the HTTP protocol.
HTTPS is the most secure and latest version of the HTTP protocol available today. SSL is being phased out in favour of TLS (Transport Layer Security).

To understand more about this subject, please see the article SSL vs. HTTPS.

24. What does the term “system hardening” mean?

The attack surface consists of all the holes and weaknesses, like default passwords and incorrectly configured firewalls, that a hacker could use to get into your system. The goal of system hardening is to increase a system’s security by decreasing the attack surface that the system’s design contains. The practice of making a system more resilient and secure by decreasing its attack surface is known as system hardening. This is a crucial component of good system security procedures.

For further information on this subject, please see the article System Hardening.

25. Recognize the differences between spear and phishing attacks.

Phishing is a type of email attack when a hacker poses as a representative of a reputable company in an effort to get a user’s sensitive information through electronic communications. The emails are meticulously constructed by the attackers, directed at particular groups, and when you click on the links, your computer will be infected with dangerous code.

Phishing with spears: Spear phishing is a kind of email assault that goes at particular people or companies. In Spear, a malevolent link is tricked into being clicked by the target, leading to the installation of malicious code and the theft of confidential data from the victim’s system or network.

To read more about this issue, please see the articles on spear phishing and phishing.

26. In your definition, what is perfect forward secrecy?

An encryption technique called perfect forward secrecy establishes a brief secret key exchange between the client and server. It is typically utilized for messaging apps, call apps, and websites where user privacy is very important. Every time a user acts, a fresh session key is created. This protects your data from hackers and maintains it uncompromised. Special keys are not related to this. Every time a user starts a new session, the fundamental idea underlying Perfect Forward Secrecy technology is to produce a new encryption key. Therefore, if the user’s unique key is compromised, the discussion will continue, and if simply the encryption key is compromised, the conversation is released. keys for encryption produced by Perfect You are protected from attackers by forward secrecy. In essence, it offers two lines of defense against intruders.

To understand more about this subject, please see the article Perfect Forward Secrecy.

27. How can MITM be avoided?

Strong Access Point WEP/WAP Encryption

Robust Router Login Details Robust Router Login Details

Employ a virtual private network.

To find out more about this subject, please read the article How to Prevent Man-in-the-Middle Attack?

28. How does ransomware work?

Malware of the ransomware type encrypts data, rendering it unreadable by computer users. Cybercriminals utilize it to hold the data hostage until a ransom is paid and extort money from the people and organizations who were attacked.

For further information, please see the article on ransomware.

29. What is Infrastructure Encryption?

The Public Key Infrastructure, or PKI, is the regulatory body that oversees the digital certificate issuing process. Provide distinct identities to people and systems while safeguarding sensitive data. Security of communication is therefore guaranteed. To offer security, the public key infrastructure uses keys in public-private key pairs. Because public keys are susceptible to assault, a robust infrastructure is needed to maintain them.

For further information, please see the Public Key Infrastructure article.

30. Describe spoofing.

A sort of attack known as “spoofing” targets computer systems by trying to assume the identity of an authorized user and pass for someone else. Attacks of this kind are carried out to either steal user data or jeopardize system security.

Different Spoofing Types:

IP spoofing: Over the Internet, messages can be exchanged and received using the IP network protocol. Every email sent to her includes her IP address as the sender (sender address) in the message header.

ARP Spoofing: This hacking method reroutes network traffic to the hackers. ARP spoofing is the practice of spying on LAN addresses in wired and wireless LAN networks.

Email Spoofing: The most prevalent type of identity theft on the Internet is email spoofing. Phishers send emails to several addresses pretending to be bank, corporate, or law enforcement officials by using official logos and headers.

For further information, please see the article What is Spoofing?


31 Cyber Security Interview Questions. How does one go about hacking a network or server?

Any server or network can be hacked by making sure the following procedures are followed:

Get on your web server.

To access this network and scan ports for more information, use anonymous FTP.

Keep an eye on your system’s processes, open ports, and file sizes.

You can see the data kept by the server behind these programs by running a few easy commands on your web server, such as “clear cache” or “delete all files.” More sensitive data that can be utilized in application-specific exploits is obtained as a result of this.

Establish connections with other websites on the same network, including Twitter and Facebook, in order to view the deleted data.Use the conversion channel to gain access to the server.

To learn more, access data and resources on the internal network.

To obtain remote access to these resources, use Metasploit.

Please read the following article to learn more about this subject: How to Hack a Web Server?

32. What kinds of sniffer tools are there?

Several key networking sniffing tools are listed below:


Wireshark and SolarWinds Network Packet Sniffer

Paessler ManageEngine PRTG NetFlow Analyzer


WinDump Mining Software

For additional information on sniffing tools in ethical hacking, please see the following article: Sniffing Tools.

33. What does SQL injection entail?

SQL injection is a technique that involves injecting SQL commands as statements to exploit user data entered through a web page. In essence, a malevolent person may use these instructions to control her web server for your application. One method of code injection that can corrupt your database is SQL injection. Below is information on preventing SQL Injection:

user input validation through the pre-specification of input fields, length, type, and authentication.

Limit user access and control the amount of data that may be accessed from your database by outside parties. In essence, you should refrain from granting anyone full access to your database.

System administrator accounts should not be used.

Please read the following article to learn more about SQL Injection.

34. What is an assault known as a Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS)?

A cyberattack known as a denial of service (DoS) targets a specific computer or website with the intention of preventing authorized users from accessing it. Its goal is to prevent her from accessing the network in order to obstruct its activities. Typically, denial of service is accomplished by sending an overwhelming amount of requests to the target computer or resource, overloading the system, and blocking the fulfillment of some or all valid requests.

For further information, please see the article Denial of Service and Prevention.

35. How can one prevent ARP toxicity?

The five strategies for preventing ARP Poisoning attacks are as follows:

ARP Tables That Are Static: Half of the issue can be resolved if you can confirm that MAC addresses and IP addresses are correctly mapped. Although manageable, this will cost a lot of money. ARP tables are used to keep track of all affiliations, and these tables are manually updated for every network change. An organization cannot realistically update its ARP table on each host by hand at this time.

Switch Security: ARP poisoning attacks can be lessened by the features found in the majority of Ethernet switches. These features, which are sometimes referred to as Dynamic ARP Inspection (DAI), assist in validating ARP messages and discarding packets that suggest any malicious behavior.

Physical Security: Maintaining control over your organization’s physical area is a very easy technique to mitigate ARP poisoning assaults. All ARP messages are routed over the local network exclusively. As a result, the victim’s network may be physically accessible to an attacker.

Network Isolation: Because ARP messages only reach as far as the local subnet, a well-segmented network performs better than a conventional network. In this manner, in the event of an assault, certain segments of the network would be compromised while the rest remained secure. Devices on different subnets are unaffected by attacks on one subnet.

Encryption: Although encryption cannot stop ARP poisoning, it can lessen the potential harm that could result from an attack. Passwords are taken from

from the network in a manner akin to the MiTM assault.

Kindly consult the following article: Preventing ARP Poisoning. to learn more.

36. What’s a firewall proxy?

Using a firewall proxy server, the proxy firewall keeps an eye on information at the application level. A process that replicates the services as though they were running on the end host is created and executed by a proxy firewall server on the firewall.

Numerous protocols, including SMTP (a standard for sending and receiving email messages on the Internet) and HTTP (a protocol for sending and receiving web pages), are part of the application layer. An HTTP service’s activity is mirrored by a proxy server, such as Web Proxy Server. In the same way, the FTP proxy server functions as his FTP service does.

Kindly consult the article titled “What is a Proxy Firewall?” to learn more.

37. Describe SSL cryptography.

Data sent between web browsers and servers is secured using Secure Socket Layer, or SSL. SSL secures the communication channel between your web server and your browser, protecting all transmitted data from prying eyes. Protocols for Secure Socket Layers: Protocol for SSL recording.

For further information, please see the Secure Socket Layer article.

38. What is penetration testing, in your opinion?

Penetration testing is used to identify risks, vulnerabilities, and dangerous information. This is done to ensure that the IT infrastructure is protected by the organization’s security system. It’s a formal process that can be considered beneficial rather than detrimental. It is a step in an ethical hacking procedure that is especially meant to break into the information system.

To understand more about this subject, please see the article on penetration testing.

39. What dangers come with using public Wi-Fi?

Worms, viruses, and malware.

Networks that are rouge.

Networks Without Encryption

Snooping on a network.

Credential Vulnerability for Login.

Alerts for System Updates.

hijacking of a session.

To find out more about this subject, please read the article Risks Associated with Public Wi-Fi.

40. Describe the primary distinction between RSA and Diffie-Hellman.

The Diffie-Hellman (DH) algorithm is a key exchange protocol that enables two parties to establish a shared secret without transferring it over the Internet by communicating via a public channel. With symmetric cryptography, DH enables two users to encrypt and decode data or conversations using their public key.

Asymmetric encryption using two linked keys is known as RSA encryption. RSA encryption enables the use of both public and private keys for message encryption. To decrypt a message, use the opposite key that was used to encrypt it.

To find out more about this subject, please read the article.

41. List a few instances of asymmetric encryption techniques.

Public and private key cryptography serves as the foundation for asymmetric key cryptography. For both message encryption and decryption, it requires two distinct keys. Significantly slower than symmetric key cryptography, but far more safe.

A public key and a private key are required. A separate one for decryption and encryption.

The size of the ciphertext is greater than or equal to that of the original plaintext.

the encryption procedure is slow.

utilized for brief data transfers.

offers non-repudiation, authenticity, and secrecy.

For further information on this subject, please see the article on symmetric and asymmetric key encryption.

42. Describe social engineering and the ways it is used.

A hacking method called “social engineering” involves assuming someone else’s identity and leveraging their social skills to get information. Certain strategies blend psychological and marketing expertise to sway and coerce certain targets from divulging private information. The following lists the various forms of social engineering attacks:

Attackers would be wise to choose impersonation as a tactic. This technique uses banks, tax authorities, police, and organizations as aliases. Then they rob the victim of money or anything else they desire. The same holds true for organizations that lawfully acquire victim information through other channels.  

Phishing: Phishing is the practice of pretending to be a popular website, like Facebook, and building a phony girlfriend website in order to deceive people into divulging personal information and account passwords. The majority of phishing assaults happen on social networking sites like Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter.

Vishing: This is also known as “voice phishing” in technical terms. Attackers deceive users into divulging personal information by using their voice and speaking abilities in this phishing method. Organizations typically do this in order to collect customer and financial data.

Smithing is an attack technique that usually involves sending messages. Using this technique, attackers send communications to victims, preying on their anxiety and curiosity in a specific subject. These subjects are associated with advancing the phishing process 

and gathering private data about the subject.

For additional information on this subject

 please see the essay Social Engineering: The Attack on Human Brain and Trust.

43. Describe the distinction between a worm and a virus.

Worms: Though they don’t alter the program, worms are related to viruses. It keeps copying itself in an attempt to slow down your machine. A remote control can be used to operate the worm. Worms exist primarily to consume system resources. The resource-sharing protocol Windows Server Message Block is exploited by the WannaCry ransomware worm from 2000 (SMBv1).

A virus is a piece of malicious executable code that is linked to another executable file and has the ability to alter, remove, or change data. A computer application that has a virus running on it does things like B. Take the file out of your computer. It is impossible to remotely control viruses. Email attachments are how the ILOVEYOU malware propagates.

Kindly consult the article.See the distinction between viruses and worms to learn more about this subject.

44. Describe what session hijacking is.

A security assault on user sessions via a secured network is known as session hijacking. IP spoofing is the most popular technique for hijacking sessions. In this technique, an attacker utilizes source-routed IP packets to insert commands into a network node’s ongoing conversation, enabling an authenticated user impersonation. Because authentication often takes place immediately at the start of a TCP session, this kind of attack is feasible. The following is a list of session hijacking types:

CSRF (Cross-site Request Forgery) packet sniffing

IP spoofing and cross-site scripting

To read more about this topic, please see the article on session hijacking.

45. Describe the many sorts of honeypots.

A honeypot is a networked system that serves as a trap for online criminals to identify and research the methods and attacks used by hackers. By posing as a possible target online, it alerts defenders to unapproved access to data systems. Honeypots are categorized according to how they are used and how much an intruder is involved. Honeypots are categorized according to their usage as follows:

Researchers use research honeypots to examine hacking attempts and identify potential defenses against them.

Production Honeypots: On the production network, servers are used to set up production honeypots. By providing misleading information to potential attackers, these honeypots serve as a front-end trap, allowing system administrators enough time to address any vulnerabilities in live systems. 

For additional information on this subject, please see the page What is Honeypot?

46. What does the term “Null Session” mean?

Attacks using null sessions have been around since the widespread use of Windows 2000. System administrators, however, do not take this kind of assault into account when putting network security measures into place. Because this kind of assault gives hackers access to all the data they need to remotely access your machine, the repercussions might be unthinkable. Although it is more difficult to carry out this kind of attack on a customer running a more recent operating system, Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 are still the most popular.

For further information on this subject, please see the article Null Session.

47. How does IP blocklisting work?

IP blacklisting is a technique to prevent harmful or unapproved IP addresses from connecting to your network. A blacklist is a list of IP addresses to block, either individually or in ranges.

Kindly see the article entitled “What is IP blocklisting?” should learn more about this subject.

48. Polymorphic viruses: what are they?

“Morphic” describes the shape, whereas “poly” denotes the number of. Therefore, as their name implies, polymorphic viruses are sophisticated computer infections that alter their appearance as they spread to elude detection by antivirus software. This virus combines a self-propagating code with a mutation engine to encrypt itself. What makes up a polymorphic virus is that random decryption algorithms are generated by an encrypted virus body mutation engine.

The virus body and mutation engine of a polymorphic virus are encrypted. A virus decryption procedure seizes control of the computer and decrypts the virus body and mutation engine when an infected software is executed. 

The virus then gains control and begins looking for new programs to infect. Virus scanners cannot search for a stable signature or fixed decryption technique since the virus body is encrypted and the decryption procedure differs from infection to infection, making detection more challenging.

For additional information on this subject, please see the article Polymorphic Viruses.

49. Describe a botnet.

A network of malware-infected computers controlled by a single attacker known as a “bot herder” is referred to as a “botnet,” short for “robot network.” A bot is a single machine that is managed by a bot herder.

For additional information on this subject, please see the Botnet in Computer Networks article.

50. What is an attack that eavesdrops?

When a hacker intercepts, removes, or alters data transmitted between two devices, it is known as eavesdropping. Sniffing, snooping, and eavesdropping all rely on unprotected network connections to obtain data transmitted between machines.

For additional information on this subject, please see the article Eavesdropping Attack.

51 Experienced Cyber Security Interview Questions. The man-in-the-middle attack: what is it?

In order to complete their task, the attacker in this kind of cyberattack remains in between the two. It can be used to alter communication between two parties to provide the impression that the conversations are taking place over a secure network.

To read more about this subject, see the Man in the Middle Attack article.

52. What’s a traceroute, exactly? Why is it applied

One popular command-line utility that is compatible with practically all operating systems is traceroute. The entire path to the destination address is shown. The time (or delay) between intermediary routers is also displayed.

Applications of traceroute:

It helps us identify the locations where the data could not be transmitted.

Traceroute facilitates the provision of an online data map from source to destination.

Sending ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) packets is how it operates.

To see a visual representation of each hop, perform a visual traceroute.

For further information, please see the article Traceroute in Network Layer.

53. How do HIDS and NIDS differ from one another?

HIDS: The host is viewed as an entire world by this intrusion detection system. It can be a server or a personal computer (PC) that can operate independently and examine and track its own internals. It functions by observing the data and files that enter and exit the host that you are working on. It operates by comparing already-taken file system snapshots from a prior file system to one another. A change could signal a possible attack, but if they remain the same, the host is secure and not under attack.

NIDS: This system may function in mixed and hybrid contexts and is in charge of installation sites throughout the network. Warnings are set off when malicious or unusual activity is found in your cloud, network, or other mixed settings.

To learn more about it, please see the article: Difference between HIDs and NIDs.

54. What distinguishes penetration testing (PT) from vulnerability assessment (VA)?

Testing for penetrations: This is done in order to look for hazards, dangerous content, defects, and vulnerabilities. used to configure the security system of a company in order to safeguard its IT infrastructure. Another name for penetration testing is “penetrating.” This is an official process that is beneficial rather than detrimental. This is a step in an ethical hacking procedure that only concentrates on breaching computer networks.

The process of identifying and quantifying (scanning) security flaws in a given environment is known as vulnerability assessment. This information security evaluation (result analysis) is location-comprehensive. Potential vulnerabilities are found using it, and suitable mitigations are offered to either completely remove or lower the risk associated with them.

For further information, please see the article: Distinguishing Between Vulnerability Assessments and Penetration Testing.

55. Describe RSA.

An asymmetric encryption algorithm is the RSA algorithm. Its asymmetry refers to the fact that it functions with two distinct keys. H. Keys—Public and Private. The private key is kept private, as the name implies, while the public key is shared with all.

For further information, please see the article on the RSA Algorithm in Cryptography.

56. What is the algorithm used by Blowfish?

Bruce Schneier created the encryption method known as Blowfish in 1993 as a substitute for the DES algorithm. Though no practical cryptanalysis methods have been found to far, it offers great encryption speed and is significantly quicker than DES. It was one of the first safe block ciphers that was openly accessible to the public without a patent.

64 bits is the block size.

keys: variable size ranging from 32 to 448 bits; 18 subkeys [P array]

There are sixteen rounds.

There are four replacement boxes (512 entries, each containing 32 bits).

For further information, please see the Blowfish Algorithm article.

57. What distinguishes an exploit from a vulnerability?

Vulnerability: A vulnerability is a flaw in a system’s implementation or design that could be used to trigger unanticipated or unwanted behavior. A computer can be exposed to security risks in a variety of ways. Attackers frequently take advantage of system security flaws to enter systems without the required authentication.

Take advantage of: Vulnerabilities can be taken advantage of via exploits. Vulnerabilities are used in their creation. Software companies frequently repair exploits as soon as they are made public. They appear as code or software that aids in taking over computers and stealing information from networks.

For additional information, please see the article: Vulnerability vs. Exploit 

58. In a network, what do you mean by risk, vulnerability, and threat?

Cyber threats are malevolent actions intended to compromise, steal, or destroy digital networks and systems. The potential for a successful cyberattack to obtain unauthorized access to private information on a system is another way to characterize a threat.

Cybercriminals can take advantage of weaknesses in system designs, security protocols, internal controls, etc., which are known as vulnerabilities in cybersecurity. Very infrequently, network configuration errors give rise to cyber vulnerabilities instead of cyberattacks.

Cyber risk is the possible outcome of data or asset loss or damage brought on by cyber threats. While risk cannot be totally eliminated, it can be managed to a degree that is compatible with the risk tolerance of your firm. Consequently, Not creating a risk-free system is not our aim; rather, we want to minimize risk.

For further information, please see the article: Differences Between Computer Network Threat, Vulnerability, and Risk.

Interview Questions for Cyber Security

59. Describe phishing and offer prevention tips.

Phishing is one kind of online assault. The word “phishing,” which means fish, is derived from the word “phish.” Setting out bait to attract fish is a frequent occurrence. Similar methods are used in phishing. It is unethical to trick victims or users into clicking on dangerous websites.

This is how to keep your users safe from phishing scams.

Install software only from reputable websites.

Share no personal information via untrusted links.

Check website URLs frequently to avoid these kinds of assaults.

Use a new email to get in touch with the sender rather than selecting the reply option if you receive an email from a known source but it sounds questionable.

Steer clear of sharing private information on social media, including addresses and phone numbers.

Observe hacked websites with harmful content by means of phishing-detecting instruments. Steer clear of free WiFi.

To learn more about this subject, please read the article on phishing.

60. Explain what you mean and how Forward Secrecy operates.

Certain key agreement protocols provide a feature called forward secrecy that ensures the session keys will stay safe even if the server’s private key is compromised. The phrase used to describe this is perfect forward secrecy or PFS. To do this, the “Diffie-Hellman key exchange” method is used.

In summary,

To summarize, the increasing number of gadgets compared to the human population and the ongoing creativity of attackers make it particularly difficult to adopt effective cybersecurity measures nowadays. In order to proactively protect against and respond to cyber attacks, cybersecurity experts must use a variety of technologies and techniques, such as encryption, firewalls, antivirus software, anti-phishing measures, and vulnerability assessments. Consequently, the need for or cybersecurity experts is anticipated to stay high in the coming years. 


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